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A quick look at the latest science news

wallpapers News 2020-12-09

activate disease resistant bodies to recognize pathogen effector protein xopq structure

researchers such as Brian J. staskawicz EVA Nogales of University of California Berkeley United States worked together to analyze the structure of active roq1 antiviral bodies directly recognizing pathogen effector protein xopq. The research was published in science recently.

researchers described the 3.8 angstrom resolution freeze electron microscopic structure of roq1 (recognition of Xanthomonas extracellular protein Q xopq) i.e. the binding of Toll like interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain of nucleotide binding leucine enriched repeat receptor (NLR) of Nicotiana benthamiana effector protein of Xanthomonas euvesicatoria. Roq1 binds directly to the predicted active sites surface residues of xopq forms tetramer resistant bodies which gather TIR domains for downstream immune signal transduction.

these results suggest a mechanism by which effector proteins can be recognized directly by NLR which leads to oligomeric dependent activation of plant disease resistant bodies signal transduction through TIR domain. It is reported that animals plants use intracellular NLR to detect pathogen infection. These receptors directly or indirectly recognize pathogen effectors activate immune response. How NLR activates is still poorly understood. For information about

please refer to: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd9993

scientists realize shape perception in the visual cortex of monkeys through neural prosthesis Chen other researchers cooperated to achieve shape perception in the visual cortex of monkeys through neural prosthesis. The research was published recently in science.

researchers implanted a 1024 channel prosthesis into the V1 V4 regions of the monkey's visual cortex used electrical stimulation to stimulate the perception of light spots on hundreds of electrodes (called optical hallucination) whose positions were consistent with the receptive field of the stimulated neurons. The activity in V4 predicted the optical illusion perception caused in V1. The researchers of

stimulated multiple electrodes at the same time resulting in visible patterns composed of many optical illusions. Monkeys can immediately recognize them as simple shapes actions or letters. These results demonstrate the potential of electrical stimulation to restore functional vision in the blind. It is understood that blindness affects 40 million people all over the world. Neural prosthesis is is expected to restore the vision of the blind in the future. For information about

please refer to: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd7435

progenitor cells differentiated from

regulate the proliferation fate of stem cells through tissue tension Lechler's team found that differentiated daughter cells regulate the proliferation fate of stem cells through tissue tension. Recently "cell stem cell" published this result online.

researchers found that the differentiated progenies of basal progenitor cells are involved in regulating the proliferation differentiation migration of basal progenitor cells. Using two different mouse strains the researchers found that the increased contractility of differentiated cells led to the excessive proliferation of stem cells prevented their transition to the hair follicle lineage. This increased contractility also impairs basal progenitor cell movement during hair plaque morphogenesis reduces melanocyte migration. The data of

indicate that intradermal tension regulates stem cell proliferation fate determination migration differentiated epidermal keratinocytes are part of the stem cell microenvironment that regulates skin development dynamic balance. It is known that basal stem cells promote the development homeostasis regeneration of epidermis. The proliferation fate of these cells are highly regulated by their microenvironment including the basement membrane the underlying mesenchymal cells. Basal progenitor cells (BPCS) cause differentiated progenies thus producing epidermal barrier. For information about

please refer to: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.11.002

Studies in cell

studies reveal multiple surface shift code mutations in microsatellite unstable tumors Bhardwaj team revealed shared immunogenicity multiple surface shift code mutations in microsatellite unstable tumors. The research was published online recently in cell. The

researchers identified tumor specific code shifts that encode multiple epitopes derived from insertion deletion mutations common to patients with endometrial cancer colorectal cancer gastric cancer that are highly msi-h. The antigenic determinants derived from these shared frameshifts have a high population incidence are widely present in many tumor subclones are expected to bind to the most common MHC allele in the MSI-H cohort. The new antigens of

produced by these mutations are obviously different from their own viral antigens which indicates that they may be new tumor antigens with high immunogenicity. The immunogenicity of the frameshift peptide was further confirmed in T-cell stimulation tests using blood mononuclear cells isolated from healthy donors MSI-H cancer patients. These studies have identified the widespread presence strong immunogenicity of tumor specific antigens produced by shared frameshift mutations in patients with MSI-H cancer Lynch syndrome which can be used to design common "off the shelf" cancer vaccines. For information about

please refer to: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.11.004

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