The spread of the novel coronavirus is taking a direct hit on the operations of airlines in Asia. About 500,000 flights taking off and landing in mainland China have been canceled since January, according to aviation information company Cerium. Tourists and business trips have plummeted. On the booking website, there are a large number of air tickets for local routes with a price reduction of nearly 90% compared with the original price and only tens of yuan for a one-way trip.
In February, China's aviation industry recorded its largest single-month loss of 24.59 billion yuan, of which airlines lost 20.96 billion yuan.
Data from the Civil Aviation Administration of China showed that in February, the number of passengers traveling by air fell 84.5% year-on-year to 8.34 million.
The stagnation of the Asian aviation industry has brought volatility to manganese dioxide.
Overview of manganese dioxide
Manganese oxide is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula of manganese dioxide. This black or brown solid naturally exists as the mineral pyrolusite, which is the main ore of manganese and a component of manganese nodules. The main use of MnO2 is for dry batteries, such as alkaline batteries and zinc-carbon batteries. MnO2 is also used as a precursor for pigments and other manganese compounds (such as KMn4). It is used as a reagent in organic synthesis, for example for the oxidation of allyl alcohol. MnO2 is an alpha polymorph that can incorporate various atoms (and water molecules) in the "tunnels" or "channels" between the manganese oxide octahedra. People are very interested in α-MnO2 as a possible cathode for lithium ion batteries. Several polymorphs and hydrated forms of MnO2 are claimed. Like many other dioxides, MnO2 crystallizes in the rutile crystal structure (this polymorph is called pyrolusite or β-MnO2), with a three-coordinate oxide and an octahedral metal center. MnO2 has a non-stoichiometric characteristic: hypoxia. The complex solid-state chemistry of this material is related to the amount of "freshly prepared" MnO2 in organic synthesis.
There are several preparation methods. One method is to start with natural manganese dioxide and then use dinitrogen tetroxide and water to convert it into a manganese (II) nitrate solution. The evaporation of water leaves crystallized nitrates. At a temperature of 400°C, the salt decomposes, releasing N2O4 and leaving a purified manganese dioxide residue. Naturally occurring manganese dioxide contains impurities and a considerable amount of manganese(III) oxide. Only a limited number of deposits contain the γ modification in purity sufficient for the battery industry. Production of batteries and ferrite (two of the primary uses of manganese dioxide) requires high purity manganese dioxide. Batteries require "electrolytic manganese dioxide" while ferrites require "chemical manganese dioxide".
Applications of manganese dioxide
The main use of MnO2 is as a component of dry batteries: alkaline batteries (so-called Leclanché batteries) or zinc-carbon batteries. Approximately 500,000 tons are consumed annually for this purpose. Other industrial applications include the use of MnO2 as inorganic pigments in ceramic and glass manufacturing. Thus far, researchers have focused exclusively on the color properties of manganese oxides, however, decorative use might imply that any black material soft enough to mark and resilient enough for the mark to remain could have been used. Indeed, both carbon-rich materials and black manganese ores were used in the production of Upper Palaeolithic cave art.
Manganese dioxide is specially used as an oxidant in organic synthesis. The effectiveness of the reagent depends on the preparation method, which is a typical problem with other heterogeneous reagents, where surface area and other variables are an important factor. Manufacturing bad reagents. However, in general, the reagent is produced in situ by treating the KMnO4 aqueous solution with Mn(II) salt (usually sulfate). The configuration of the double bond in the reaction is conservative. The corresponding alkynol is also a suitable substrate, although the resulting propargyl aldehyde can be very active. Benzoic acid and even unactivated alcohol are also good substrates. 1,2-diol is cleaved by MnO2 into dialdehyde or diketone. In addition, the applications of MnO2 are diverse. It can be applied to a variety of reactions, including amine oxidation, aromatization, oxidative coupling and thiol oxidation.
Manganese dioxide price
Manganese dioxide price will vary randomly with the production cost, transportation cost, international situation, exchange rate, and market supply and demand of manganese dioxide. Tanki New Materials Co.,Ltd Aims to help All industries and Chemical Wholesalers to find high quality, cheap price Nanomaterials and chemicals by providing turn-key customize manufacturing services. If you are looking for manganese dioxide, please feel free to send an inquiry for the latest price of manganese dioxide.
Manganese dioxide supplier
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More information about manganese dioxide
Manganese Dioxide Properties
535 °C (995 °F; 808 K) (decomposes)
Solubility in water
Manganese Dioxide Structure
Tetragonal, tP6, No. 136
a = 0.44008 nm,
b = 0.44008 nm,
c = 0.28745 nm
Formula units (Z)
Related manganese oxide
Because of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, there is a shortage of natural gas supply. At the same time, other renewable energy sources cannot produce enough electricity, so electricity prices have soared in many countries of the world. For this reason, I assume the supply and prices of the manganese dioxide would keep being influenced by the high energy prices.
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